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Benjimin Franklin on the US dollar. Bureau of company]

Liu Yu (Dean of the School of Humanities and Social Sciences, China University of Science and Technology, Tsinghua University Special Professor)

Editor │ 陈晓雪

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Frankword’s epitaph said he \”I took the electricity by the nature, and one hand took the power of the monarch\”, \”can most indicate this. It can be seen that civilianism and science are directly indirect.

– Ren Hongjun \”Science and Near Culture\”

Printing and social public servant

The \”Frank Letter\” in the header is called the Benjamin, known as the Chinese Father. Benjamin Franklin, 1706-1790).

January 17, 1706, Franklin was born in Boston, a paleon immigrant family. His father is a painter in the UK. After coming to the New World to make candles, soap and sale Grocery is a living. This craftsman has a total of 15 children in the neutral wife, because of many children, the family is very embarrassed.

As the smallest son in the home, Ben Jie has become a father’s helper, and after the print shop opened by Brother James as an apprentice. Franklin is only in the school for two years. It is still eight or nine years old, so he has never graduated from his elementary school. However, he used the opportunity to work in the print shop to meet many bookstores, and can read all kinds of books, from popular reading to famous works, from philosophy, religion to natural science, can be involved in a wide range of people. At the same time, he also started to try to write, and Zeng Tu Guader’s \”New England\” published in the \”New England\” advice, many readers, including the relatives and friends, do not know this \” The knowledge of the knowledge is actually a 16-year-old man.

CHARLES MILLS \”Franklin in the printing workshop\” (C.1914) Source: DETROIT PUBLISHING CO.

In October 17, in October, Franklin is unfasuous and ruthless, and it is unilaterally torn with legally binding apprenticeship contract and leaves Philadelphia. . At the beginning of the 18th century, the pursuots in the new mainland emerged.A trend of the frontier and wilderness, 17-year-old Franklin attracted by an emerging bustling business center. It turns out that this is an extremely important decision that is extremely important for his personal future or the future. I don’t know why, he wrote to his parents to explain his own condition and the reason for the reasons. He is seen by the Governor of Pennsylvania. The latter appreciates his courage and writing, and he will recommend him to London procurement equipment. However, the Governor did not honor the supported promise, Franklin stayed in the UK in the past two years and returned to Philadelphia, in order to make a living changed a number of occupations.

The UK experience made the young Franklin’s eyes. After he returned to Philadelphia, he bought a print shop. After a good benefit of the business, he took over a \”Pennsylvania report\” in the near future. His thoughts are more mature. Writing can also be further improved, published \”the\” Buddha and inevitable, Happy and Pain \”,\” Good Virtue \”series and other affected articles.

From 1732, Franklin published a booklet called \”Poverty Richard Calendar\” every year, the master’s Richard Sads and his love It laid a traditional traditional traditional – a peaceful mentality and the vibrant language to reveal the camouflage of some big figures in life, and spread knowledge to ordinary people. The topic of \”Class\” includes calendar, weather, poetry, proverb, astronomy, star preliminary and mathematics benefit, etc., full of ethics and ordinary people’s wisdom. \”There are many short words in the book, you can take it down, as referenced.\” Hu Shi came to evaluate. \”Class\” continuously released 25 years, with average annual annual number, it can be called the vividness of the ideal of clearing the makeup and moral education.


Printing press in the Franklin Memorial Memorial, Franklin, a librarian

At the same time, Franklin is also passionate about public business, organizing a total of a library, establishing a library, establishing a fire brigade, and forming a civil society, serving as a secretary of Pennsylvania Parliament, a member, a Philadelphia National Defense Army Commander, Philadelphia Post Secretary, North American colonial post office. In 1749, Franklin proposed a plan of the Pennsylvania college that creating an unpublished position. Two years later, the college was formally established, and the 45-year-old Franklin was submitted as the first board of directors. 1791 School is renamed the University of Pennsylvania, now is one of the famous \”Ivy Alliance\”. Despite the busy business, he still insists on reading writing and strives to learn new knowledge of natural science. He also grasped French, Italian, Spanish, and Latin, which have laid the foundation for his scientific research.


Pennsylvania University campus in the campus, the author wants to know what Du Peng photography

[123 Franklin is often called scientists, mainly due to his electrical research.

雷电与权杖:被情敌称颂的富兰克林│左图右史 In the middle of the 18th century, the basic theory of electrical technology has not been born, and Franklin has obtained some information and related equipment from the British friends, especially the Leiden bottle invented by the Dutch people. Since 1747, Franklin took into the electrical experiment. Initially he just uses Leiden bottles to collect current and improve equipment, and gradually has many new understandings. A series of terms created by Franklin, such as \”Charge\”, \”Positive\”, \”Neutral\”, \”neutral\”, \”conductor\” (CONDUCTOR), etc. has been taken so far. Franklin believes that electricity is an element that exists in all substances, like fluid, can be transferred from one object to another, but cannot be checked. Most importantly, he proposes that there is a negative electricity while generating positives, and both cannot exist alone. Although theoretically is not mature enough, this expression has been marked with the determination of charge and the \”single flow\” of electricity. Just as the Harvard Science History, Bernard Cohen (I. Bernard Cohen, 1914-2003) said: \”As a theory that has experienced numerous experimental tests over 200 years, Franklin’s charge Conservation Law is physics The significance is as important as Newton’s momentum conservation law. \”

Franklin also observed the tip of the conductor easier to discharge, soon he applied his discovery to kite in the kite. As early as 1749, Franklin noted that there were many of the sky’s lightning and metal tip discharge, such as glowing, fast process, killing animals. A widely circulated statement is that in 1752, he conducted a lightning test by flying a kite, and the results prove that the lightning strike is the discharge phenomenon. Some people have doubtful to denying Franklin personally conducted this extreme dangerous experiment. In the United States, \”Discovery\” Channel’s \”Rumet Terminal\” is used in experiments: If a person closes his finger near the key to the thunder, it will be killed. In fact, there is no need to \”find\” the event of the channel, the German Russian scientist Limann, 1711-1753) is smashed by lightning in similar experiments. However, according to Duranklin’s diary and other literature, as well as its friends, scientists, Joseph Priestley, 1733-1804) The famous \”Electrical History and Status\” (1767), and the author of the two literature in this article, the author of the author Cohen and Ezabson have a sure attitude, Franklin is in his son William (actually illegitimate, and later The UK has conducted an experiment with the assistance of the Governor of New Jersey. It is also in this summer, according to the recommendations of Franklin, the world’s earliest lightning rod was born in Philadelphia. In 1754, Franklin also introduced \”How to make housing and other lightning attacks\” in its own edited \”Poverty Calendar\”.

The figure below is the oil painting \”Benjamin West, 1738-1820) creation\” Franklin takes electricity from the sky \”,\” Franklin in the picture is on the wire Metal key captures lightning. The Franklin in the painting is a white-haired old man. In fact, he was 46 years old that year. Then the following is a 19th-century master, and there is also William with him, but the appearance is too young, because 1752 William has been 21 years old.

West \”Franklin takes electricity from the sky\” (C.1816) Philadelphia Art Museum


Optimization \”Franklin and Electric\” (19th century) Source: Hyaena Gallery

1751 Franklin published \”Experiments and Observing\” in the UK, 1756 is elected as members of the UK Royal Society, which is very small (if not only) won this honor North American colonial scholar. In 1772, he was elected as a Foreign degree from the French Academy of Sciences. In 1789, it was selected as the Land of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences. He also won the honorary Ph.D. in Harvard, Yale, Oxford, Edinburgh.

The earliest Pennsylvania Parliament Building Source: Ezabson, 2015 [123

Franklin is the passage of the cultivar and scholar mixed characters in the literary revival, he is always proud to say that he is a craftsman or businessman. His self-written epitaph is simply \”printing\” Self-living. He is like a martial artist, a fluctuation, ambiguity, a blood circulation, a geomagnetic field, comet, a blood circulation, a geomagnetic field, a comet, a blood circulation, a light of light, a hot effect, a cooling technology, a thermal conductivity, a chart, and demographic , The illusion, etc. have research. In addition to the lightning protection needle, his many inventions are: a high performance, smokeNovel stoves, North American colonies, the first medical catheter, two-dimensional glasses, particle fertilizers, musical instruments, swimming and frogs, improved Leiden bottles and collectors Wait.

Franklin Designed Stove Pattern (1744) Source: Ezabson, 2015 [123

Franklin improved collector (C.1748) Source: Ezaaxon, 2015

Franklin Many inventions and discovery from his social practice, a typical example is the discovery of the Gulf of Mexico. After he served as the total length of North American Post, I found that the UK to Rhode Island and New York, the time used to be a long time, but the Neutrics of the two places and the British port should be almost the same. In order to engage in the truth, he ordered and personally participated in the survey, and finally discovered the best Mexico Bay, the world’s most powerful Mexico, the world’s most powerful Gulf.


The Franklin Society established in 1842 is actually a huge scientific education center Liu Illuminated photography

In particular, it is that the \”Poverty Calendar\” published in Franklin has been published in the \”Poor Richard Calendar\” in the early years of the early years, such as the \”calendar\” in 1748 mentioned the brother. The difference between the Ni and Toller system, ridiculous \”Toller is like a whimsky chef, when he can’t flip the meat in the pot, the meat does not move in the pot, but strives to let the fire, kitchen and All things are constantly rotating around meat. \” The \”Class\” also mentioned that Newton and the British poet Po Bai wrote the broad-free epitaph that Newton wrote. In 1749 \”Calendar\”, Franklin introduced the Yisheng: \”He first applied the air pump to the actual life, so we have many surprising discovery. His natural knowledge and Chemical knowledge is very deep, but his piety is also admired. \”

China University

雷电与权杖:被情敌称颂的富兰克林│左图右史 December 16, 1773 late night, Samuel Adams (1722-1803) and John Hancock, 1737-1793, Samuel Adam (John Hancock, 1737-1793) were installed into three Indians on the East India. The ship will pour all 342 boxes of tea into the sea. This is a famous Boston Tea Party Event. It is a concentrated expression of the North American colonial residents to rebellion in the long-term press exploitation of the British Empire, alsoLeading the UK to cancel the autonomy of Massachusetts and send troops to the North American colonies.

Nathaniel Currier \”Boston Port Tea Event\” (1846) Color Stone Print Image Source: Wikipedia

Franklin initially had a certain fantasy for the British government, and the Boston’s sales tea event happened, he has also regretted the \”destruction of mobs on private property\”, and hope that local The interests of businessmen can get full respect by the host country. However, with the understanding of colonial politics, he finally realized that the conflict of British rulers and colonies could not be harmonious.

The Franklin finally rebelled the British government’s factor, including personal contempt and deception, the desire of the desire of the UK, and the introduction of the British government’s penetration discriminatory bill; but the most What is important is that he has realized that on this land of North America, it should not copy the old world based on the border, not a moral rule, and social order.

雷电与权杖:被情敌称颂的富兰克林│左图右史 On May 5, 1775, Franklin returned from the United Kingdom to Philadelphia. Two and a half weeks ago, the city has been awakened by the rigor of Lexington. In London, in London, the Franklin, who was abolished, the \”Print Tax Act\”, enjoys lofty prestige in the north people. He is a representative of the second continent meeting. At this time, London has ordered to arrest Franklin, so he did not hesitate to invest in the ranks of the uprising army.

June 11, 1776, the mainland meeting elected a five-person committee responsible for drafting the \”Independent Declaration\”, members of the committee include Thomas Jefferson, Virginia (Thomas Jefferson, 1743 -1826) On behalf of Massachusetts, John Adams, 1735-1826, represents Roger Sherman, Connecticut, represents Robert Livingston, New York State (Robert Livingston, 1746-1813) and Franklin on behalf of Pennsylvania. Five people are the most older, compared to Jefferson, Adams and other blood rigid, he is more like a military division of the feather fan. Adams, Jefferson later became the second, three US president.

The picture below shows the works of the American history painter Ferris (1863-1930), depicting Franklin, Adams, Jefferson (from left to right) in Jefferson’s home. \” Independent declarationScene: The gesture of Franklin is like a editor-in-chief of the final right. The other two will listen to his opinions. The ground is filled with a mess, and the window of the North America Continental Council building can be seen on the wall. Holding a 1776 calendar.

Ferris \”Declaration of Independence Declaration\” (1900), the current Virginia Historical Society [

The Declaration was made by Jefferson drafted, Adams and Franklin made some modifications. Jefferson was influenced by the British enlightenment thinkers, especially Rock (John Locke, 1632-1704), with the philosophical depth of others, and his language is elegant and rich, full of poetic but full of strength, but Franklin’s miniature modification is considered to have It is important. He took the original \”We believe that these truths are sacred and unconfilled\”, \”We believe that these truths we believe are clearly self-definitive\”. \”

雷电与权杖:被情敌称颂的富兰克林│左图右史 For this purpose, the biographic author of Franklin wrote:\” The concept of \”\” self-evidence \”truth is said to be from Jefferson’s favorite philosopher John Locke, it is better to have been affected by the scientific decisions of Aisak Newton and Franklin’s friends David Hume ‘s analysts; \”Jefferson uses the word’ sacred ‘, no matter what intentional or unintentional, he It is believed that the issues discussed (human equality and talent human rights) are based on religious claim. After the revision of Franklin, it turned into rational claims. \”Although Ezabsen, although there is some excessive interpretation, carefully ponder It’s quite taste.

He refused to approve the most beneficial and necessary law to the public interest.

He Has Refused His Assent To Laws, The Most WholeSome and Necessary For the Public Good.

He banned his governor’s approval, extremely important law, or not to put these laws in the first line It is completely ignorant after the shelves have been placed.

He Has Forbidden His Governors To Pass Laws of Immediate and Press, Importance, Unspended in Their Operation Till His Assent SHould Be Obtained; He Has Utterly Neglected To Attend THEM.

雷电与权杖:被情敌称颂的富兰克林│左图右史 In every stage of suffering of these oppression, we all call on the most humble words. And we will be willing again, it is just a harm to once again. A monarch, if its character is as good as he is comparable to the behavior of the violent king, is not equipped with the leadership of the free people.

In every stage of these oppressions we have petitioned for redress in the most humble terms: our repeated petition have been answered only by repeated injury A prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a tyrant is. Unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

This is not only a declaration of the birth of a new country, but also the battle of the designer of the monarch.

On July 4, 1776, the \”Independent Declaration\” was passed in the mainland meeting of Philadelphia, and later became the United States’s founding countries. The picture below is another \”Independent Declaration\” drawn by John Trumbull, 1756-1843, and is now saved in the Capitol Building in Washington DC. The focus of the picture is the other members of the Jefferson and the five-person committee that are submitted by the text. Jefferson is Stairklin. He is the left side of Livingston, Shelman and Adams on the left. It is John Hancock, which is the chairman of the mainland meeting. It is said that Hancock said after signing his name: \”We must unite\”, Franklin replied: \”Yes, otherwise we will be hanged.\”

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Tublebur \”Independent Declaration\” (1819), now Tibetan Washington DC Capitol 雷电与权杖:被情敌称颂的富兰克林│左图右史

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Tublebur \”Independent Declaration\” detailed, five-person committee

Trumbur is this paintingIt is very realistic, and the characters are very realistic. The 48 people in the picture are famous. They are representatives attending the meeting, and the painter will sketch them one by one. The original manuscript of the \”Independent Declaration\” has now not survived. At present, there are 56 signature people in precious copies in the National Archives, and the Chairman of the mainland conference is located in the centrally obvious place. As for Trumbur’s painting, only the artistic reproduction of historical scenes, not the real portrayal of the venue.

Signing in the \”Independent Declaration\” signature of the National Archives of the United States Source: Wiki Encyclopedia

As early as the second year of moving the Philadelphia, Franklin has went to the UK, and it works in London’s two printing. . After being a public office, Franklin became a representative of Pennsylvania colony in the UK, from 1757 to 1775, his number visited the UK and settled in London. In the heart of the British Empire, he made a variety of friends in the newspaper, and the interests of the colonies in the newspaper. During the period, he also traveled to Europe, the Netherlands, Germany, etc.

雷电与权杖:被情敌称颂的富兰克林│左图右史 The picture below is a portrait of British painter David Martin (David Martin, 1737-1797) in London for Franklin, now saved in the White House. Some people call it \”thumb portrait\”, because the right thumb of Duranklin is holding the chin, it is said that this is a common style of the enlightenment period. There is a half-length statue in front of the desk, and the Franklin is wearing the 18th-century French aristocratic clothing. Does it imply that the British scientific spirit and France’s enlightenment is fermenting on this future rebel?

Martin \”Franklin\” (1767) is now Tibetan White House

In 1681, Britain Charlie II had given him a large land of North America. The old William’s son is expensive, from the son of the Naval. Come to a large number of Presmals in other places in the UK and other places. After 80 years, Pennsylvania has become the most free of the best in North America. The future generations of Pen En family still pay taxes like other residents. As a representative of Pennsylvania parliament, Franklin has repeatedly went to the British petition, accused the poetry of the Lord family. In 1761, Franklin went to the Britain to kill the royal family, and ultimately make the pivot court to make a decision to pay taxes. Therefore, he also had a great force in the Pennsylvania colony, held for 14 consecutive years.State Council members have been excluded from a new round of parliamentary elections.

In 1765, the British Parliament passed the \”Stamp Act\” and wanted to pay for the colonial prints to pay for the overhead of the North American garrison. On February 13, 1766, Franklin came to the UK to go to the UK, in the 4-hour debate, the tongue of the tongue, and the disadvantages of this bill, especially the impact on the relationship between the UK and the colonial. According to eyewitnesses, in the face of the question of President Franklin replied 174 questions, just like an amended a group of primary school students. Franklin reminds the British, and the residents of North American colonies have always regarded themselves as British, as long as they are fully respectful, they will continue to support the UK, otherwise they will cause turmoil. After a few weeks later, the Stamp Tax Act was abolished, and the Franklin became the hero in the minds of the North American colonies.

After the Boston tipped tea incident, the Massachusetts parliament decided to hire Franklin, which hired many acquaintances in the UK, but the Governor Hutchinson, 1711-1780) vetoed This appointment. In fact, as early as one year, Franklin and his friends in Massachusetts were informed that Hardinsen had repeatedly went to the British government, informing the Anti-British situation in Massachusetts, and suggested taking control over the colonial area; and Franklin’s strategy is still The interests of the UK are excuses, indicating that the British soldiers will only deepen the hostility of the colonies. At the beginning of 1774, Franklin was notified to the pivoting hospital to accept investigations related to the leaks of Houblenson. In one and a half hours, Franklin stood there accepted the reprimanders of the deputy inspect, and the latter was attacked by him with a vicious language. At that moment, Franklin promised the British to the colonial people and fantasy and autonomous fantasy.

Anonymous \”Franklin is reprimanded in London\” Source: Ezaksen, 2015 [ 123]

\”Independent Declaration\” shortly, Franklin accepted a new mission, as a representative of newborn countries to France, seeking assistance in weapons and personnel, and promoted to win more Support for more European countries. Despite the high year, he is still happy.

October 27, 177, 71-year-old Franklin sailed with his two grandchildren to France. He is only a special specialist in France, and it is only a special commissioner of the mainland conference. Later, he became a US agency, and the independent war for the French public, the government and even the royal family, supporting the independence of the North American continent to play a huge role. He promoted The \”US French Alliance Treaty\” (1783) signed in Paris, directly dragging the Water and the British boss. richRankelin is called \”most popular Americans\” by French public opinion, and some rich French families even decorated with his portraits. When his carriage is close to Versailles, the crowd is in the past. It turned out to be shouting \”Long live Franklin\”.

CHARLES SAUVAGE \”Louis Sixteen in the Versailles of Franklin\” (1920) Source: Wikipedia


The picture is called Franklin’s standard, from French painter Du Pushes, 1725-1802), painting, was 79 years old. The front of the US 100 yuan bank uses this portrait drawn by the French. Unlike Washington, Jefferson, Jackson and Lincoln, he is a person who has not served as the US dollar banknote in the United States (the other is Hamilton, who has served as the first financial ministers of the United States). Due to his portrait of 100 yuan, thousands of people in the world are familiar with this face.

Du Presses \”Franklin\” (C.1785) is now Tibet National Port

100 yuan USB ball

There is a hundred years of grievances between France and England, so from the folks to the royal family, the British Empire as a nation is frustrated in North American colonies. Louvi 16, Louis, never thought of, for 13 years, a more violent and bloody revolution will come to his kingdom. On the one hand, the US revolution has successfully incentive to the French people who have experienced the influence of the imperial influence; on the other hand, it officially recognizes the independence of the United States and the subsequent military and economic assistance in the French financial crisis. Therefore, in a certain sense, Franklin’s emergence of the outbreak of the French revolution has also had indirect impact.

The signing of the \”US Element Treaty\” is the most important diplomatic achievement after the United States, which is a key role in breaking the British blockade and striving for foreign aid, and then Franklin is in Europe. It has promoted Spain, the Netherlands, which greatly changed its strength in the independent war, and accelerated the process of winning the victory in the United States.

Floral news

As a paleon, Franklin does not have many scriptures in life. He is in autobiography that he is young and low, and he is a royal family.William is his illegitimate child. His wife Dembole (Deborah Read Franklin, C.1708-1774) was a devout valuer, giving him a pair of children (where the boy was early, the daughter Sara later became an independent war. Responsible for the leaders of relief and the private assistant of Franklin, and carefully carefully carefully the illegitimate William of Franklin. Franklin has many times, long-term travelers, faithful wives, are not accompanied by travel, 1774 Daibola died in Philadelphia, Franklin is still in London.

Franklin maintains a close relationship with some people of the UK’s upper-level society. For this reason, he often patron whose people like the fire club, it is said to be a semi-hidden sex. It is easy to obtain secret information trend with the colonial authority. There is a poor sketch to circulate in the London social group, and the 50-year-old Franklin is being intimate with a young girl in the London apartment. The gossip of these small newspapers may be blocked by his worshipers as a crowd of hostile forces, but it seems that he is not meditating to these gangs. As early as the Philadelphia, Franklin opened up the first gossip column and sex suggested mailbox in the Pennsylvania report.

Anonymous \”Franklin in the middle of Paris women\” Source: Ezabson, 2015 [123

When Franklin made France, Daughgola had died. The five short body, the lower abdomen, talks about elegant, sometimes it will also change the small magic of the United States into some french ladies famous salon. Legend, Franklin is a romantic elderly with many legendary experiences and many mistasis. In fact, most of the girlfriends who have a famous girlfriend is only his spiritual \”lover\”. Paris is really attracting him, and it is the enlightenment leaders who have a deep thoughts but courageous to act.


Amei Brother \”Voltaine is Franklin Grand Sun\” (C.1889) Image Source: Wikipedia

A work in Brazilian Painter Ameli (Pedro Américo, 1843-1905), depicting Franklin with a small 7 years old in February 1778 Sun Beichi visits the story of Voltaire (1694-1778), the year of Voltaire is 84 years old, Franklin is 72 years old. Under the eye-catching friends and worshipers, Voltaire put on the head of Bai Baiqi, using English blessings: \”For God and Freedom.\” MARQUIS de CondorCET, 1743-1794) Remember this unforgettable moment.

However, Franklin, which is good at the scene, is still a heart to a French lady, that is, the charming and unfair and ritual Edible Irviku, OR MADAME HELVétius, 1722-1800).


Ayevi repair lady is born, but because of many families (21 people in the brothers and sisters), she was sent to the female monastery when she was very small. Later, she came to Paris to rely on a novelist’s aunt, and soon quickly in the aunt’s salon. Among the many pursuits, she chose an elderly 7-year-old philosophers Irvien (1715-1771). This old love is not only a philosian, but also one of more than 50 chief tax officers appointed by the French King. This position means wealth. His philosophy of philosophy is \”the spirit\” to promote freedom and enjoyment, attacking everything with religious morality, usually as a representative of materialism philosophers.

Aier’s salon attracted almost all important intellectuals and social names, Didro, Voltaine, etc. General visit. In addition to the male owner wealthy, smart and beautiful hostess is definitely a key factor. Bovier de Fontenelle, 1657-1757, who had served as a lifelong secretary of the French Academy of Sciences, visited the salon of Ireviku, and said that he was 70 years old when he was nearly 1993.

Louis-Michel Van LOO \”Irvie Waffles\” Source: Wikipedia

After Franklin came to France, the philosopher who advocated enjoyment has been destacted for many years, but the Salon, Ireviku in the Pasi Manor is more lively, and many celebrities have worshiped in her. Under the pomegranate skirt. According to eyewitnesses, she raised a large group of ducks and dogs at home, and the clothes were very casual, and there was a priest and two monks living in the manor. 雷电与权杖:被情敌称颂的富兰克林│左图右史

In 1778, it was introduced by Durg Pavilion (Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot, 1727-1781), Franklin first came to the Passist Garden. The two-person character of the heavy agriculture school Durge is an intimate friend and admirers of Mrs. Irevie, I am a poet and the main patriarch. I didn’t expect that Franklin wrote the enthusiasm for the Mrs. Ireviku after the first time.The overflow letter, revealing the love of admire. Soon two really played with love games, and there was no hidden in front of others. Franklin’s comrades in Adams came to visit this situation, and his lady simply accused the Mrs. Irviku is \”slut\”.

After a year, Franklin, which was officially appointed as ambassador to France, asked Irv, who was married to Ireviku, who was 73 years old, and Mrs. Ireviku was 57 years old. Duarvard was originally a person who didn’t like vinegar, but the words of the Paris social circles were very unpleasant, and they couldn’t help but advise the Mrs. Irviwu as soon as possible. However, Franklin is not a good break, and later wrote a lot of lover in the mind, and the most unbearable is that there is a ridiculous dream to watch white heart, claiming that he dreams Demobora and Irvi repair Heaven has been connecting, the latter advised him to continue with his wife still in the world.

Anonymous \”Durge\” (1782), now Tibetan Versailles [123

The Mrs. Irevieva died in 1800, and the climax of the French Revolution has been returned; Franklin died in the United States 10 years ago.

After the year, after the year

In September 1785, Franklin returned to Philadelphia again in all the attention. Below is the scene of the Ferris pen, he is welcomed by the people in the hometown: a big boat has just stopped on the terminal of the Trava River. The aged Franklin was supported by the female Bayo (the position of the North American Post Secretary Post Secretary). The left is Daughter Sarah and France, France, Baibeki, the right, and the right to the right, welcome to the Penns McKean, 1734-1817).

雷电与权杖:被情敌称颂的富兰克林│左图右史 Ferris \”Franklin Rongwang\” private collection picture Source: Wikipedia

In 1787, Franklin, had retired Franklin attended the meeting of the constitution, and became the only person who participated in the three most important documents in the United States in the United States – these three documents were 1776 years. \”Independent Declaration\”, \”US Constitution\” in 1783, as well as the \”US Constitution\” in 1787. Unlike Washington, Jefferson and other \”Father\”, Franklin did not neither its own manor is not a slave owner. He has strongly slave the slavery in 1751, and the observation of human reproduction is strong. In his later years, it is clearly opposed San slaves, 1787 in the \”US Constitution\” held as a Pennsylvania waste slave promotion meetingA.

From the middle age, Franklin suffered obesity and gout, and more complications were more serious and have a variety of complications in his later years. On April 17, 1790, Franklin died in Philadelphia, and directly caused by pleurisy. In the few days, the Philadelphia people held a grand funeral for him, and more than 20,000 people joined the team. Perhaps, I apologize to the faithful and devout hammer, his body and the 博拉 ‘s hem baked the San King Cemetery near the Fifth Avenue Center of Philadelphia (Christ Church Burial Ground). Some online travel returns that Franklin buried in the Old Barn Cemetery in Boston, in fact there is only his parents and other family members, and the descendants are standing there in a granite with franklin Obelisk. After all, here is the birthplace of Franklin, Boston people are mixed with fish. In recent years, some municipalities in my country have been competing for the name of the country as a township, and the same mentality.

About his tombstone, there are two unveiled wrong statements. The first is the famous epitapy:

Benjamin Franklin, a body of printing workers,

lying here, being bullied by the bug.

As with only the old book left,

The word is blurred, the gold plated, there is no content.

But his work will not completely disappear,

As he believes,

雷电与权杖:被情敌称颂的富兰克林│左图右史 has a day,

will be corrected and revised via the author, [ 123]

Reproduces the world with a new, more perfect version.

In fact, this is the 22-year-old play of Franklin, and now it is now engraved on a bronze medal on the inner wall of its tomb.

Franklin’s tomb is very simple, in the northwest corner of the entire Salas cemetery, only on his stone tombstone and his wife’s name and burial year: Benjamin and Deborah Franklin, 1790. Next to his daughter Sarah and female in-law Bayi’s tomb.

In March 2018, the author took a special trip to Philadelphia to Franklin’s relics, and it was not smashing the cemetery door. The king of the peers is big, and the arms extend from the wall out of the wall. However, seeing some coins on the cover of the simple slate tomb, most of which is a small copper plate of 1 penny; there are also a little bigger than a little bigger, and the generos who guess the nickel coins don’t know the meaning of small copper plates – That is People think of the Qiao \”of Franklin\” Provincial One \”is equal to Make a Wen (a Penny Saved I)S a Penny Gained) To express our respects to the descendants of the Puritans immigrants and the father of the United States.

雷电与权杖:被情敌称颂的富兰克林│左图右史 Franklin and wife 博拉 合 墓 墓 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ The misunderstanding of the spread of the spread is related to the citations of the headings of this article. I don’t know if Cornell and Columbia University have access to the Franklin cemetery, the \”epitap\” is definitely wrong. In fact, the words from Franklin’s French friends and the enemy Durge, the latter died before the Franklin, in advance, in advance, to write the possibility of Franklin to write the epitaph, almost no existence. However, Du’s words are so beautiful. Philadelrians put the gold in the bronze medal, placed on the exterior of the northwest corner of the San King Cemetery, exactly the cemetery of the Franklin couple, so visitors can know The grave in Franklin is located.

This article is commemorating the top of the bronze medal in the exterior wall of the Franklin cemetery [123

From the above figure, there can be a total of three famous people on Franklin on this bronze medal: The first is the US opened the country of Washington, 1732-1799, the second The Earl of Mirabo, 1749-1791, in the early days of the French revolution, and the third is Durget. The Latin of Durge is very good. I have translated the Roman poet Virgil’s \”Athi\” part of the classical six-step poetry, Voltaire comment on this. He is about 1778 to Franklin, which was originally written in Latin Coelo, Mox Sceptra Tyrannis. The above figure shows:

He Tore from the skies the lightning

And from Tyrants the Scepter.

雷电与权杖:被情敌称颂的富兰克林│左图右史 Ren Hongjun’s translation is generally in place.

Aisakony. Sun Yunning. 2015. Franklin passed. Beijing: CITIC Publishing Group.

Franklin. Wang Zhenglin and other translations. 2013. Franklin autobiography. Beijing: China Youth Publishing House.

Construction translation. 2004. Poverty Calendar. Beijing: China Women Publishing House.

Cohen, i.B.1990.Benjamin Franklin’s Science. Cambridge (MA): Harvard University Press. 雷电与权杖:被情敌称颂的富兰克林│左图右史

Franklin: Printing, Scholars, Free Fighters. Scientific Culture Comments .14 Volume 3.

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